Linking sense of agency to perceived duration

Sense of agency (SoA) is an important feeling associated with voluntary actions, enabling one to experience that he/she is controlling the actions and through them the events in the external environment. Until now, only the distortion of time interval between the action and its consequence (i.e. intentional binding effect) was associated with SoA, but a recent study by Shu Imaizumi and Tomohisa Asai, published in Consciousness and Cognition showed that even perceived duration of consequence is linked with SoA.

To investigate this association, they measured the perceived duration (measure of subjective time) of visual display and the rating for amount of control (explicit measure of agency) as a function of temporal contiguity (between action and visual display) and identity of visual display (being participants own hand vs. someone else’s hand). In each trial, participant performed a complex hand gesture as depicted by the image on the screen. This hand gesture was recorded by the overhead camera and projected on the screen after variable delay. While participants performed this task, their hands were covered so the only visual feedback of their action was the one that they saw on the screen. Participants reported whether they perceived the duration of the displayed video feedback (3000ms) as “short” or “long”. They also reported whether they felt that they controlled the displayed hand, by providing a binary response as “totally agree” or “totally disagree”.

The agency was manipulated in two ways, one by changing the visual display (self vs. others) and second, by manipulating the action consequence delay (0ms, 500ms, 1000ms or 1500ms). In half trials, participants saw recording of their own hand (self-condition) and in other half trials, they saw the prerecorded clips of other person hand movements performing similar action (other-condition). Orthogonally, the temporal contiguity between action and visual feedback (0ms, 500ms, 1000ms or 1500ms) was also manipulated. Based on prior studies on SoA, it was expected that seeing visual feedback of one’s own hand should elicit stronger SoA compared to seeing someone else hand. Similarly, one should experience a stronger SoA for visual feedback displayed with short delay (0ms or 500ms) compared to longer delay (1000ms or 1500ms). They hypothesized that if SoA influences perceived duration then participants should report “long” judgment more often for conditions that are known to boost SoA.

Results revealed that when the visual feedback display consisted of participant’s own hand, they reported stronger SoA and perceived the duration as longer, for short action outcome delay (0ms and 500ms) and this effect become weaker as the delay become longer (1000ms and 1500ms). Furthermore, the above effect was not observed when display consisted of someone else hand, suggesting the possibility that SoA and perceived outcome duration might be linked. Another similar experiment, investigated the effect of participants own hand projected from first person perspective (upright) vs. second person perspective (inverted). Authors expected that inverted perspective would be treated as non-self and will not influence perceived duration, but surprisingly both inverted as well as upright perspective showed similar effect on perceived duration and agency, suggesting that independent of orientation the visual information regarding one’s own hand is processed in a similar manner.

In conclusion, this study provides evidence that SoA also affects perceived duration and participants perceives the outcome duration to be longer when they feel stronger SoA. However, this study is unclear about the exact mechanism that would explain the observed temporal expansion associated with SoA. Moreover, only single duration was used to evaluate changes in temporal perception. Another recent study published in Scientific Reports by Makwana and Srinivasan, also demonstrated similar temporal expansion associated with intentional action, which was sensitive to temporal contiguity and source of action (intention-based vs. stimulus-based). They demonstrated the intention induced temporal expansion, using multiple durations and paradigms (temporal bisection and magnitude estimation), In addition, they also investigated its underlying mechanism in terms of internal clock (most influential model of time perception), suggesting the role of switch dynamics and not the pacemaker speed, to be involved in such temporal expansion. Thus, these studies overall suggest that intention and intentional action, not only influence the time between the action and the outcome but may also influence other aspects of the outcome events such as its duration, and more studies are required to fully understand in what all ways our perception is distorted  by intentional action.

 

Reference:

  1. Moore, J. W., & Obhi, S. S. (2012). Intentional binding and the sense of agency: a review. Consciousness and cognition21(1), 546-561.
  2. Makwana, M., & Srinivasan, N. (2017). Intended outcome expands in time. Scientific Reports, 7(6305) doi: 1038/s41598-017-05803-1

 

Source article:  Imaizumi, S., & Asai, T. (2017). My action lasts longer: Potential link between subjective time and agency during voluntary action. Consciousness and cognition, 51, 243-257.

 

—Mukesh Makwana (mukesh@cbcs.ac.in),

Doctoral student,

Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences (CBCS), India.

TRF Newsletter – February 2018

Dear all,

We hope you had a fantastic start to the new year and are pleased to share TRF’s first newsletter of 2018 containing some exciting announcements!

CONTENTS

1. TRF1 Conference Survey Results

2. TRF2 Announcement

3. TRF ECR Committee

4. TRF Timing Labs Database

5. TRF Timing Papers Alerts and Database

6. JOBS

7. TRF Membership

8. TRF Blogs

9. TRF Mailing List

10. TRF Blogs

11. Blog your Conference

12. Contribute to TRF

13. Feedback for TRF

============================================================================================

1. TRF1 CONFERENCE SURVEY RESULTS

Thank you to everyone who joined us in Strasbourg for the 1st TRF Conference and shared your detailed feedback on TRF1 and suggestions for future TRF conferences!

We received > 100 responses and have summarized the weighted-average scores (out of 5) as below. We thank you all for making TRF1 a tremendous success!

SCIENCE

How would you rate scientific program of TRF1? 4.58

How would you rate TRF1 on the diversity of timing topics? 4.40

How likely are you to recommend TRF Conferences to your colleagues? 4.72

Did you make any new potential scientific collaborations at TRF1? 32.3% YES, 48.4% MAYBE

How would you rate the quality of the Keynote talks? 4.40

How would you rate the quality of the Symposia? 4.42

How would you rate the quality of the Poster sessions? 4.19

How would you rate the quality of the Oral sessions? 4.32

How would you rate the quality of the Poster Blitz session? 3.88

How do you rate TRF1 with respect to open science and open access? 4.52

ORGANIZATION

How would you rate TRF1 with respect to its overall organization? 4.66

How would you rate the abstract submission process? 4.61

How would you rate the registration process? 4.22

How do you rate the food and dining experience at the conference venue? 4.27

How would you rate the quality of the social events? 4.35

How was your experience of Strasbourg as the location of the conference? 4.84

How would you rate TRF1 on value for money? 4.55

COMMUNICATION

How would you rate the quality of communications from the organizers before and during the conference? 4.62

How would you rate your experience of the TRF conference website? 4.43

How do you rate the quality of social media outreach before and during the conference? 4.28

How do you rate the quality of communications from TRF before and during the conference? 4.45

If you would like to catch up on the science presented at TRF1, see the following links –

TRF1 Proceedings –

The proceedings with all abstracts is available as a PDF here –

https://trf-strasbourg.sciencesconf.org/data/pages/ProceedingsTRF2017.pdf

TRF Open Science Foundation –

TRF’s OSF site containing ~100 posters and talks presented at TRF1 – https://osf.io/view/trf2017/.

============================================================================================

2. TRF2 ANNOUNCEMENT

We are very excited to share that the 2nd Timing Research Forum Conference will be held in October 2019 in Mexico!

TRF2 will be organized by Hugo Merchant and held at the Institute of Neurobiology, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico at the Juriquilla Campus in Queretaro.

You can view a copy of the TRF2 presentation by Hugo Merchant here – https://drive.google.com/open?id=1Eya898fu6wXXW80BeIfHlIJ5wkvE1H61

The precise dates and details of the Organizing Committee will be confirmed in due time.

We look forward to build upon the emphatic success of TRF1 and hope to see the timing community come together again in Mexico!

============================================================================================

3. TRF EARLY CAREER RESEARCHER COMMITTEE

We are delighted to announce the formation of the TRF ECR Committee and welcome its first 10 members!

The TRF ECR Committee will contribute to a number of TRF’s core activities with an aim to support early career researchers and promote TRF’s mission.

ANDREW CHANG

PhD Candidate

McMaster University

Canada

AYSHA MOTALA

PhD Candidate

Cardiff University

UK

BASAK AGDOGAN

PhD Candidate

Columbia University

USA

LAETITITA GRABOT

Postdoctoral Researcher

University of Bielefeld

Germany

LUCILA CACERES

Postdoctoral Researcher

Universidad Nacional de Quilmes

Argentina

LJUBICA JOVANOVIC

PhD Candidate

Ecole Normale Supérieure

France

MITRA TAGHZIADEH

PhD Candidate

Kochi University of Technology

Japan

MUKESH MAKWANA

PhD Candidate

University of Allahabad

India

SVEN THOENES

Postdoctoral Researcher

Leibniz Research Center for Working Environments and Human Factors

Germany

YOSHIKO KABE

Postdoctoral Researcher

University of Western Ontario

Canada

============================================================================================

4. TRF TIMING LABS DATABASE

As one of their first initiatives, the TRF ECR Committee is building a database of labs that conduct timing research.

Apart from being an important community-building project, this information will be of use to researchers seeking collaborations,

students seeking PhD / Postdoc positions, as well as journal editors seeking relevant reviewers.

Please fill out this shared Google document similar to the example shown –

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1W4NWNUrNOTIYshVB-PSUs_PXZZ6AS0R1ecAQsLSBH3M/edit?usp=sharing

If you’re a PI and are currently hiring, please indicate YES/NO in the ‘Hiring’ column and add a link to the job advert accordingly.

And anytime you plan to hire new lab members in the future, you can update your status to YES. The ECR Committee will regularly

monitor the hiring status and share information about new jobs on TRF’s platforms like website, social media and newsletter.

The labs database will be published on the TRF website for easy access to the wider scientific community.

If you’ve any questions, please feel free to write to the TRF ECR Committee – ecr.trf@gmail.com

============================================================================================

5. TRF TIMING PAPERS ALERTS AND DATABASE

The TRF ECR Committee is pleased to announce another initiative to promote new timing publications (2018 onwards) by TRF members.

Please let us know any time you’ve a new timing paper published by –

1) Updating details of your paper in this shared Google document (similar to the example publication) –

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1WGTzUVqaom7lczhbyHIiG-vYKxxqb_qCZmgkALg3R7A/edit?usp=sharing

2) Tagging TRF (@timingforum) on Twitter if you’d like us to RT on Twitter and share on other social networks

3) Sending us a lay summary (up to 1000 words with one figure) that will be published on TRF’s blog

All new publications shared with us will feature in the TRF Newsletter and published on the TRF website on a monthly basis.

If you’ve any questions, please feel free to contact the TRF ECR Committee – ecr.trf@gmail.com

============================================================================================

6. JOBS

Please see the following ad for tenure-track position –

Applications are invited for a tenure-track researcher position in the Cognition and Brain Dynamics research team of Virginie van Wassenhove.

The lab is hosted at NeuroSpin (Dir. Prof Stanislas Dehaene) on the plateau de Saclay near Paris, France.

 

Full description here: https://brainthemind.com/openings/

 

Virginie van Wassenhove

============================================================================================

7. TRF MEMBERSHIP & SOCIAL MEDIA

To become a member of TRF and join a community of > 650 timing researchers, please fill in the form here – http://timingforum.org/membership/

TRF has an active online presence with > 1100 followers on several social networks –

ResearchGate: 361 followers

https://www.researchgate.net/project/Timing-Research-Forum

Twitter:  425 followers

Facebook: 420 followers (+9%)

http://facebook.com/timingresearchforum

============================================================================================

8. TRF BLOGS

We look forward to sharing new blogs about recently published papers and also welcome any blog articles about your experience at TRF1.

If you would like to regularly contribute as a TRF blogger, please get in touch: trf@timingforum.org.

============================================================================================

9. TRF MAILING LIST

Everyone is invited to share any items related to timing related positions, grants, news, or anything that concerns timing research with the TRF community via our mailing list.

Make sure to use plain text when sending these messages (i.e. no attachments or fancy formatting is allowed). Please keep in mind that the mailing list is monitored, and only the the items approved by the mailing list moderators will be circulated to our community. Looking forward to your emails!

Please email your items directly to trf-list@timingforum.org.

============================================================================================

10. BLOG YOUR PAPER

We invite TRF members to submit short summaries of their recently published articles on timing. Articles should be no longer than 500 words and not include more than one representative figure.

Please submit your entries after your paper is published by emailing us at trf@timingforum.org. Submissions are open anytime and will be featured on the TRF blog page – http://timingforum.org/category/blog.

============================================================================================

11. BLOG YOUR CONFERENCE

We invite TRF members to blog about their experience of a timing conference/meeting/workshop that you have recently attended. Submissions can highlight prominent talks/papers presented, new methods, trends and your personal views about the conference. Pictures may also be included.

Please submit your articles (no longer than 1000 words) to trf@timingforum.org within two months from the date of the conference you intend to highlight.

============================================================================================

12. CONTRIBUTE TO TRF

TRF aims to host pertinent timing related resources, so that the TRF website acts as the definitive platform for everything related to timing research. The current resources listed on the TRF website include: (1) all members’ publications, (2) timing related special issues, (3) books on timing, (4) list of meetings focused on timing, (5) list of timing related societies/groups, (6) as well as code and mentoring resources.

TRF encourages open science and supports sharing of relevant information and knowledge between its members, with the aim to advance the field of timing research. We therefore invite you all to contribute to these resources. Please email us (trf@timingforum.org) your suggestions for new resources for the timing community.

============================================================================================

13. FEEDBACK FOR TRF

As an open academic society, we hope that you participate freely and support the TRF community in achieving its mission. As we like to repeatedly emphasize, TRF’s aim is to serve all timing researchers through open exchange of ideas, information and resources to advance the timing research community. We are open to receiving your suggestions or ideas that will help TRF grow and continue to deliver on its mission. We look forward to your feedback!

============================================================================================

With best wishes,

Sundeep Teki,

Argiro Vatakis, &

TRF ECR Committee

Email:                      trf@timingforum.org | ecr.trf@gmail.com

Website:                  timingforum.org

ResearchGate:        https://www.researchgate.net/project/Timing-Research-Forum

Twitter:                    https://twitter.com/TimingForum

Facebook:               http://facebook.com/timingresearchforum

Expectation, information processing, and subjective duration

A paper recently published in Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics tested an implementation of the temporal oddball illusion (according to which standard stimuli seem shorter than oddball stimuli of the same duration) in a novel context using a novel methodology (musical imagery reproduction). This paper is, to the authors knowledge, the first to test whether the temporal oddball illusion translates from single events to multiple-event sequences, and whether information processing influences this potential translation.

In two experiments, musical chord sequences of varying durations (3.5 s; 7 s; 11.9 s) did or did not contain auditory oddballs (sliding tones), and people listened to the sequences while engaged in either direct temporal or indirect temporal processing. We manipulated information processing by independently varying the task (Experiment 1), the sequence event structure (Experiments 1 and 2), and the sequence familiarity (Experiment 2). The task was either to complete a verbal estimation (“What is the duration of this excerpt?”) or a musical imagery reproduction (“Imagine that excerpt playing back in your head. Re-play it through your head the exact way you heard it play through the headphones, from start to finish. Press the green button to mark the start of the excerpt you’re imagining. Press the red button to mark the finish of the excerpt you’re imagining.”). The sequence event structure was either repeated (the mere repetition of a single chord), coherent (chords progressions that follow the rules of Western tonal harmony), or incoherent (the coherent sequences scrambled such that the chords progressions violated the rules of Western tonal harmony). The sequence familiarity was either familiar (presented during an exposure phase) or unfamiliar (not presented during the exposure phase). Completing a verbal estimation task, and listening to coherent, repeated, and familiar sequences induces direct temporal processing. Completing a musical imagery reproduction task, and listening to incoherent and unfamiliar sequences induces indirect temporal processing.

The main findings were that the sequences containing oddballs seemed shorter and longer than those not containing oddballs when people were engaged in direct and indirect temporal processing, respectively. These results support the dual-process contingency model of short interval time estimation, and can be explained using the notion of an information processing continuum (Zakay, 1993): as attention shifted from counting seconds (direct temporal processing) to listening to music (indirect temporal processing), for example, the effect of oddballs shifted from decreasing the number of seconds counted to increasing the amount of music remembered.

References:

Zakay, D. (1993). Relative and absolute duration judgments under prospective and retrospective paradigms. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 54, 656–664. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03211789

Source paper:

Simchy-Gross, R., & Margulis, E. H. (2017). Expectation, information processing, and subjective duration. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-017-1432-4

 

Reprints are available at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rhimmon_Simchy-Gross

– Rhimmon Simchy-Gross

PhD student

Music Cognition Lab @ University of Arkansas

November 2017 Newsletter

Dear all,

We are pleased to share the November 2017 Newsletter of the Timing Research Forum.

CONTENTS

1. TRF1 Conference Wrap-up
2. TRF1 Survey
3. TRF ECR Committee
4. TRF Membership
5. TRF Blogs
6. TRF Mailing List
7. Blog your Paper
8. Blog your Conference
9. Contribute to TRF
10. Feedback for TRF
=========================================================================
1. TRF CONFERENCE WRAP-UP

Thank you to everyone who joined us in Strasbourg for the 1st TRF Conference! We had 270 registered participants presenting > 200 abstracts which made for a very high-quality and friendly conference bringing together everyone interested in timing research!

As we wrap up the conference, here are a few links for you to browse –

(1) TRF1 Proceedings –

The draft version of the proceedings with all abstracts is available as a PDF here –

https://trf-strasbourg.sciencesconf.org/data/pages/ProceedingsTRF2017.pdf

(2) TRF Open Science Foundation –

Thank you to everyone who has openly shared their work at the OSF site – https://osf.io/view/trf2017/

We’ve received ~100 posters and talks and would like to encourage everyone to upload their presentations.

(3) TRF1 Picture Gallery –

You can browse and add your photos from TRF1 here –

https://drive.google.com/drive/u/1/folders/0B4m3QgOaBWV1OFZqTVVpSjlqM2M
=========================================================================

2. TRF1 SURVEY

Following from the discussions held during the Business Meeting at TRF1, we’ve created a survey and would like to request every TRF Member (whether you attended TRF1 in Strasbourg or not) to express their thoughts and share your feedback to help us improve your experience with TRF and TRF Conferences.

Please submit your responses to the survey by December 31, 2017. It will take ~5mins to complete the survey –

https://goo.gl/forms/Xit9sWJPQ0uIFFSW2
=========================================================================

3. TRF EARLY CAREER RESEARCHER COMMITTEE

Interested graduate students and postdoctoral researchers are invited to apply to join the TRF Early Career Research Committee. Email trf@timingforum.org with a statement of interest and how you would like to contribute to TRF and promote timing research and early career researchers. Deadline: November 30, 2017.
========================================================================

4. TRF MEMBERSHIP

To become a member of TRF and join a community of ~ 650 timing researchers, please fill in the form here – http://timingforum.org/membership/

ResearchGate: 346 / 313 followers (+10.5%)
https://www.researchgate.net/project/Timing-Research-Forum

Twitter:  392 / 321 followers (+22.1%)

Facebook: 411 / 377 followers (+9%)
http://facebook.com/timingresearchforum
=========================================================================

5. TRF BLOGS

We look forward to sharing new blogs about recently published papers and also welcome any blog articles about your experience at TRF1.

If you would like to regularly contribute as a TRF blogger, please get in touch: trf@timingforum.org.
=========================================================================

6. TRF MAILING LIST

Everyone is invited to share any items related to timing related positions, grants, news, or anything that concerns timing research with the TRF community via our mailing list.

Make sure to use plain text when sending these messages (i.e. no attachments or fancy formatting is allowed). Please keep in mind that the mailing list is monitored, and only the items approved by the mailing list moderators will be circulated to our community. Looking forward to your emails!

Please email your items directly to trf-list@timingforum.org.
=========================================================================

7. BLOG YOUR PAPER

We invite TRF members to submit short summaries of their recently published articles on timing. Articles should be no longer than 500 words and not include more than one representative figure.

Please submit your entries after your paper is published by emailing us at trf@timingforum.org. Submissions are open anytime and will be featured on the TRF blog page – http://timingforum.org/category/blog.
=========================================================================

8. BLOG YOUR CONFERENCE

We invite TRF members to blog about their experience of a timing conference/meeting/workshop that you have recently attended. Submissions can highlight prominent talks/papers presented, new methods, trends and your personal views about the conference. Pictures may also be included.

Please submit your articles (no longer than 1000 words) to trf@timingforum.org within two months from the date of the conference you intend to highlight.
=========================================================================

9. CONTRIBUTE TO TRF

TRF aims to host pertinent timing related resources, so that the TRF website acts as the definitive platform for everything related to timing research. The current resources listed on the TRF website include: (1) all members’ publications, (2) timing related special issues, (3) books on timing, (4) list of meetings focused on timing, (5) list of timing related societies/groups, (6) as well as code and mentoring resources.

TRF encourages open science and supports sharing of relevant information and knowledge between its members, with the aim to advance the field of timing research. We therefore invite you all to contribute to these resources. Please email us (trf@timingforum.org) your suggestions for new resources for the timing community.
=========================================================================

10. FEEDBACK FOR TRF

As an open academic society, we hope that you participate freely and support the TRF community in achieving its mission. As we like to repeatedly emphasize, TRF’s aim is to serve all timing researchers through open exchange of ideas, information and resources to advance the timing research community. We are open to receiving your suggestions or ideas that will help TRF grow and continue to deliver on its mission. We look forward to your feedback!
=========================================================================

With best wishes,

Sundeep Teki
University of Oxford
sundeepteki.org

&

Argiro Vatakis
Cognitive Systems Research Institute
argirovatakis.com

Graduate Student Positions in Auditory Neuroscience, Human Interaction & Music McMaster University

Two graduate student positions are available to work with Dr. Laurel Trainor who directs both the Infant Auditory Lab (https://trainorlab.mcmaster.ca) and the LIVELab (https://LIVELab.mcmaster.ca) at McMaster University.

Projects include understanding human interaction in musical ensembles using behaviour, motion capture and EEG measures; studying brain oscillations involved in predictive timing and predictive coding; musical development in infants and children; and applications using non-verbal measures to understand auditory perception and communicative processes in special populations such adults with dementia or hearing loss and children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.
The research group is multidisciplinary with ties to Engineering, Health Science and Music.  In addition to infant and adult behavioural and EEG labs, students will have access to the internationally acclaimed LIVELab, a research-concert hall capable of simulating almost any acoustical environment and equipped with multiperson EEG, physiology, motion capture and more (https://LIVELab.mcmaster.ca).
Applicants should have a Bachelor’s degree in Psychology, Neuroscience, Cognitive Science, Engineering, Computer Science or other affiliated disciplines. General information on the graduate program can be found here: https://science.mcmaster.ca/pnb/graduate-studies.
Initial inquiries can be directed to Dr. Trainor at LJT@mcmaster.ca. Please include a CV and unofficial transcript with your inquiry.
Papers from the lab can be accessed at https://trainorlab.mcmaster.ca/publications

TRF1 Conference Survey

Dear all,

Thank you very much for participating in the 1st TRF Conference in Strasbourg and making it a great success! Following from the discussions held during the Business Meeting, we’ve created a survey and would like to request every TRF Member (whether you attended TRF1 in Strasbourg or not) to express their thoughts and share your feedback to help us improve your experience with TRF and TRF Conferences.

Please submit your responses to the survey by December 31st. It will take ~5mins to complete the survey – https://goo.gl/forms/Xit9sWJPQ0uIFFSW2

With best wishes,
Sundeep & Argie


On behalf of the Timing Research Forum

Web: timingforum.org
Email: trf@timingforum.org
Twitter: twitter.com/timingforum
Facebook: facebook.com/timingresearchforum
ResearchGate: researchgate.net/project/Timing-Research-Forum

PostDoctoral Position at McGill University: Temporal Dynamics of Group Interaction

A postdoctoral scholarship position is available in auditory-motor
integration in music and speech, with an emphasis on temporal dynamics
of group interaction. Dr. Caroline Palmer’s lab (www.mcgill.ca/spl,
Psychology, McGill University, Montreal) uses behavioural, motion capture,
and EEG techniques in measurement and modeling of temporal dynamics, with
strong ties to Montreal’s Centre for Research in Brain, Language and
Music, BRAMS, and Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Music Media and
Technology.

This 1- or 2-year position is ideal for a motivated scholar with a
strong background of experimental skills in cognitive neuroscience
and/or computational modeling. Specific projects will be developed with
the scholar. Applicants must receive their PhD within 3 years of the
application date. Applicants should submit a cover letter, CV, and 3
representative papers, and contact information for 3 references
to: spllab.mcgill@gmail.com. Start date (negotiable) is early 2018. For
further details, contact Caroline Palmer (caroline.palmer@mcgill.ca).

Links:
——
http://crblm.ca/
http://www.brams.org/
http://www.cirmmt.org/

Thank you from TRF!

Dear all,

We would like to thank everyone who made TRF1 a phenomenal success –
including each and every one of the 271 registered particiants, all
symposium organizers, sponsors, student helpers from Strasbourg, and
the local organizers – Anne Giersch and Jenny Coull!

Thank you also to everyone who shared tweets, photos, and updates from
the conference and engaged with the wider scientific community.

(1) TRF1 PHOTOS
We’ve created a shared folder to upload any photos that were taken
during the conference – http://bit.ly/2zpTZmu.

(2) TRF1 SURVEY
We will be sending a Feedback survey soon. This is an opportunity to
express your thoughts about this meeting and have a say about the
organization of future conferences and new initiatives by TRF.

(3) TRF1 SUBMISSIONS ON OSF
A reminder for everyone to upload their TRF1 presentations at TRF’s
Open Science Foundation site – http://osf.io/view/trf2017/. We would
like everyone to help the timing field move forward by embracing open
science and openly sharing your work. This will only work if everyone
contributes to it, and not just a select few!

(4) TRF EARLY CAREER RESEARCHER COMMITTEE
Interested graduate students and postdoctoral researchers are invited
to apply to join the TRF Early Career Research Committee. Email
trf@timingforum.org with a statement of interest and how you would
like to contribute to TRF and proposals of how you would promote
timing research and early career researchers. Deadline: November 30,
2017.

(5) TRF2
TRF2 will be organized at the Institute of Neurobiology, Universidad
Nacional Autonoma de Mexico by Hugo Merchant and colleagues. The
timing of the conference (either 2018 or 2019) will be confirmed
following your responses to the feedback survey. We, therefore, urge
everyone to participate in the survey.

(6) BLOG YOUR TRF1 EXPERIENCE
We would like to invite all participants to share a blog about their
experience of TRF1. Email your blogs to trf@timingforum.org.

With best wishes,
Sundeep & Argie

TRF1 Speaker Q&A – Aniruddh Patel

Aniruddh Patel is a Professor in the Department of Psychology at Tufts University, who studies music cognition (including rhythm and timing) in humans and other species. He earned his Ph.D. in Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard. Before joining Tufts he was a Senior Fellow at The Neurosciences Institute in San Diego.

 

How can we determine the brain’s code for time?

Evolution rarely has just one way of solving a problem. It seems very unlikely that there is a single code for time in the brain. For example, the mechanisms behind circadian rhythms, musical beat perception, and spatiotemporal sequence learning in primary visual cortex are likely to be quite different. It the coming years it will be interesting to see which timing mechanisms are the most ancient and widespread in animal brains and which are more recently evolved and specialized in certain species.

 

What will your talk at the 1st Timing Research Forum Conference focus on?

New findings on monkey synchronization to a beat. One of the surprises in research on timing and rhythm has been the finding that when monkeys are trained to tap to a metronome, their taps do not anticipate metronome events, unlike humans. Instead, the taps lag metronome events by 200-300 ms. In contrast, when humans (even those with no musical training) tap with a metronome, they spontaneously align their taps very close in time to metronome events, indicating accurate prediction of metronome events.  This difference has been important for debates over possible species differences in beat-based timing abilities. Are monkeys capable of predictive temporal synchronization with a metronome? We recently found that if monkeys were trained to move their eyes to a spatialized visual metronome, and were given a reward for each predictive saccade, they could learn to synchronize to a metronome in a predictive way. They could also generalize this predictive synchronization to novel tempi, which is a key feature of human synchronization to a metronome. It remains to be seen if they can demonstrate predictive and tempo-flexible synchronization to an auditory metronome, which is the most widely studied form of sensorimotor synchronization in humans. I will discuss what our new findings suggests in terms of the evolution of human beat-based timing abilities.

 

What according to you are the most pressing and fundamental questions in timing research?

I’m clearly biased by my interest in music cognition, but I think that that understanding how the auditory and motor system interact in rhythm perception (i.e., in pure perception, with no overt movement) is a fundamental issue, and one that also has clinical significance for helping individuals with motor disorders such as Parkinson’s disease.

 

What current topics/techniques or new advances in timing research are you most excited about?

Cross-species research aimed at developing an animal model for beat perception. An animal would allow us measure and manipulate the neural circuits involved in beat perception in fine-grained detail.

 

What advice do you have for students and postdoctoral researchers interesting in investigating the brain’s code for time?

Develop your questions and hypotheses by triangulating between a few distinct areas of research, e.g., behavioral research on humans, neurobiological studies of non-human animals, and cross-species / evolutionary studies of rhythm and timing.

TRF1 Organizer Q&A – Anne Giersch

Anne Giersch studied medicine and specialized in psychiatry before doing a PhD in Cognitive Neuroscience, with a training in Psychophysics and Experimental Psychology in the field of visual grouping. After a post-doctoral stay in Germany, she was hired by the French Medical Research Institute (INSERM) as a full time researcher. She directs a team in Strasbourg in France (INSERM U1114) recognized for its expertise in the exploration of cognitive disorders in schizophrenia. Anne Giersch has worked on cognition, psychopharmacology and schizophrenia for several years, with 70 papers in international journals. She has developed a specific focus on time issues, to uncover the mechanisms of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and their relationship with neurobiological disorders and clinical symptoms. She claims that the thought fragmentation described in patients may reveal critical mechanisms of disorders affecting the sense of self in patients, but also critical temporal dynamics of our unconscious and conscious mental activity.  

 

How can we determine the brain’s code for time?

And how do we go from the brain code to the experience of time? Duration? Order? Asynchrony? Thing?

 

What aspect of timing does your lab investigate, and what do you consider to be the most pressing and fundamental questions in timing research?

My lab is investigating the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Those patients have been described as suffering from a disruption of the sense of time continuity, which we can only imagine to be a frightful, unspeakable, experience. The question of the sense of time continuity is so old it might not be considered as a pressing question. However, if its disruption explains some of the terror experienced by the patients; if it leads them to stop from feeling as one unique continuous being over time, then it becomes an emergency. But still one question among other pressing questions.

 

As the Organizers, what are your hopes and expectations for the 1st Timing Research Forum Conference?

The conference brings together researchers coming to timing from different perspectives. This has always been fruitful in research, and my hope for this conference and the following ones is that this timing research will remain open, or even open up more to different approaches and backgrounds, attracting researchers from different fields in a flexible way.

 

What current topics/techniques or new advances in timing research are you most excited about?

I came to timing only after studying psychiatry, and then visual organization under the effect of drugs or pathology. I am now totally absorbed in timing research. I see the whole topic as an ideal way to understand what consciousness is and where our conscious experience comes from, both its content and its container, or structure.

 

What advice do you have for students and postdoctoral researchers interesting in investigating the brain’s code for time?

I would say come! Work and read. As much as you can, in your field and outside your field. Philosophy, neuroimaging, psychology, molecular biology, beyond if you can. And don’t forget to stop, think, and let your mind wander.